Tuesday, December 28, 2010

फलम् नैवेद्यम् च (phalam, naivedyam ca)

Continuing on from the previous post, I will present in this post a list of commonly offered fruits and food items. नैवेद्यम् (naivedyam) is upacArA 14. Paraphrasing the earlier reference document, this upacAra is mentioned in sutrA 41 of the bhAvanopanishat and is the following:

समस्तयातायात वर्जनम् नैवेद्यम्
samastayAtAyAta varjanam naivedyam

Overcoming the temptations of the indriyAs and offering and renouncing our worldly pleasures and desires is the significance of naivedyam.

The reference to indriyAs is because food involves all our senses: we see it, we smell it, we taste it, we touch it and also hear it during the chewing process. Any food item that gratifies all these senses naturally appeals to us. So, by offering naivedyam we symbolically renounce these pleasures and simply partake in whatever God gives us back.

Typically naivedyam consists of fruits, milk and milk products and various cooked delicacies. The assortment of these food items varies depending on the occasion and the presiding deity. I have compiled a list that includes as many of these items as I can think of. The list of fruits is the following.


1. Grape
द्राक्षा फलम् (drAkshA phalam)

2. Mango
आम्र फलम् (Amra phalam)

3. Coconut (broken)
नारिकेल खण्डम् (nArikela khaNDam)

4. Jackfruit
पनस फलम् (panasa phalam)

5. Banana
कदली फलम् (kadalI phalam)

6. Lemon fruit
जम्बीर फलम् (jambIra phalam)

7. Wood apple (vlampazham)
कपित्थ फलम् (kapittha phalam)

8. Rose apple (panneer koyya)
जम्बु फलम् (jambu phalam)

9. Gooseberry
आमलक फलम् (Amalaka phalam)

10. Jujube
बदर फलम् (badara phalam)

11. Pomegranate
दाडिम फलम् (dADima phalam)

12. Apple
सेव फलम् (seva phalam)

13. Guava
बीजपूर फलम् (bIjapUra phalam)

14. Pineapple
अनास फलम् (anAsa phalam)

15. Sugarcane
इक्षु फलम् (ikshu phalam)

16. Orange
नारङ्ग् फलम् (nArangga phalam)

17. Custard apple (sitaa pazham)
गण्डगात्र फलम् (gaNDagAtra phalam)

18. Dates
खर्जूर फलम् (kharjUra phalam)

Dairy products and some other ingredients used either as naivedyam or to perform abshishekam (snAnam) are the following:

1. Milk
क्षीरम् (kshIram)

2. Curd
दधि (dadhi)

3. Buttermilk
तक्रम् (takram)

4. Butter
नवनीतम् (navanItam)

5. Ghee
धृतम् (dhrutam)

6. Cheese
दधिकम् (dadhikam)

7. Paanakam
पानकम् (pAnakam)

8. Oil
तैलम् (tailam)

9. Honey
मधु (madhu)

10. Turmeric
हरिद्रा (haridrA)

For the list of cooked delicacies, I have mostly included only the Tamil names on the left hand side for the sake of brevity! Performing an image search on these names in Google will surely clarify your doubts if you are not sure about any of them. The list is the following:

1. Vadai
माषापूपम् (maShApUpam)

2. Adirsam
गुडापूपम् (guDApUpam)

3. Adai
अपूपम् (apUpam)

4. Vennpongal
मुग्धान्नम् (mugdhAnnam)

5. Chakkarai pongal
गुडान्नम् (guDAnnam)

6. Paal payasam
क्षीरपायसम् (kShIrapAyasam)

7. Vella payasam
गुडपायसम् (guDapAyasam)

8. Kozhukattai
मोदकम् (modakam)

9. Idli
अपूपम्  (apUpam)

10. Cooked white rice
शाल्यन्नम् (shAlyannam)

11. Cooked colored rice
चित्रान्नम् (citrAnnam)

12. Curd rice
दध्योन्नम् (dadhyonnam)

13. Coconut rice
नारिकेलान्नम् (nArikelAnnam)

14. Rice flakes (aval)
पृथुकम् (prthukam)

14. All bakshanams
भक्ष्यविसेषम् (bakshyavisheSham)

To conclude, here is the naivedya mantram:

ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः।
Om bhurbhuvaH svaH


भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि।
bhargo devasya dhImahi

धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात्॥
dhiyo yo naH pracodayAt

देव सवितः प्रसुवा ।
deva savitaH prasuvA

सत्यम् त्वर्तेन परिशिन्चामि ।
satyam tvartena parishincAmi


ॐ प्राणाय स्वाः ।
Om prANAya svAH

ॐ अपानाय स्वाः ।
Om apAnAya svAH

ॐ व्यानाय स्वाः ।
Om vyAnAya svAH

ॐ उदानाय स्वाः ।
Om udAnAya svAH

ॐ समानाय स्वाः ।
Om samAnAya svAH

ॐ ब्रह्मणे स्वाः ।
Om brahmaNe svAH

There is, as always, an explanation for the above mantram also. I will not get into it now, but will try to do so later when I talk about the Gayatri mantram in greater detail. Finally, after we are done offering food to god, we need to offer Him tAmbUlam as per upacArA 15. The tAmbUla mantram is the following:

पूगी फल समायुक्तम्।
pUgI phala samAyuktam

नागवल्ली दलै युर्थम्
nAgavallii dalai yurtham

कर्पूर चूर्ण सन्युक्तम्
karpUracUrNa sanyuktam

ताम्बूलम् प्रति गृह्यताम्॥
tAmbUlam prati grhyatAm

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